Antibacterial drugs are used for the treatment of various types of bacterial infections in humans, animals and plants. There are a variety of antibiotic drugs which are used to treat various types of diseases. Each drug helps to treat a particular type of bacterial infection.
These drugs are powerful medicines which are used to inhibit the growth of bacteria that causes infections in the body. It helps the body to fight the disease causing bacteria. These drugs have been in use since the early 1930s. Most of these drugs are prescribed for bacterial infections and not viral infections such as common cold, flu and mumps. Penicillin was the first antibiotic that was discovered by Alexander Fleming. Today there are more than hundreds of different types of antibacterial drugs available all around the world.
Different Types of Antibacterial Drugs
Antibiotics are mainly classified into two varieties, which include the broad spectrum and the narrow spectrum, on the basis of its action on a particular type of bacteria. Drugs which are used to treat infections caused by different types of bacteria are classified under the category of broad spectrum. Narrow spectrum antibiotics are used to treat specific type of bacteria. Some of the most common varieties of antibacterial drugs include the following.
Tetracycline: This particular antibiotic is mainly used to treat ear infections, urinary and respiratory tract infections. Tetracycline is a broad spectrum antibiotic and it often includes minocycline and doxycycline. However, the internal consumption of tetracycline can cause certain side effects such as gastric problems and indigestion. It can also lead to stomach problems. Tetracycline should not be consumed by people suffering from liver disorders.
Penicillin: One of the earliest antibiotics discovered by mankind includes penicillin. It is used to treat a wide number of diseases. This antibiotic destroys the cell walls of the bacteria in its stage of reproduction. Penicillin includes various other antibiotic agents such as oxacillin, ampicillin, nafcillin, penicillin V and G. This antibiotic is mainly used to treat eye, ear, skin and respiratory tract infections. Penicillin is often prescribed in combination with other antibiotics as it can cause mild allergies in some people.
Sulfonamides: This antibacterial drug is quite effective in treating kidney infections. It is quite similar to penicillin in its ability to fight bacterial infections.
Aminoglycosides: Another variety of antibiotic is the Aminoglycosides which includes neomycin, gentamicin and streptomycin. It is mainly used to treat pneumonia and other such diseases.
Polypeptides: This particular variety of antibacterial drug is mainly used to treat skin infections. As it is quite toxic, it is used for external applications only.
Macrolides: This antibiotic includes erythromycin, azithromycin and clarithromycin. It is mainly used to treat respiratory tract infections and other such ailments. The drug has mild side effects such as nausea, diarrhea and stomach discomforts. It is however not prescribed to pregnant women and elderly persons.
Antibacterial drugs are prescribed on the basis of the infections. In certain cases, blood specimens are cultured to identify the type of bacteria that has led to infections. Doctors then prescribe the antibiotic drugs accordingly.